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Installation of gabions
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Installation of sack gabions
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Installation of sack gabions

Installation of sack gabions
Sack gabions are cylindrical baskets made of 8x10 double twisted steel woven wire mesh, with mechanical characteristics higher than the ones suggested from EN 10223-3. Sack gabions are filled with stones at the project site to form flexible and permeable structures used in river trainings and various emergency works. Sack gabions are supplied with steel reinforcing wires inserted during the manufacturing process to facilitate closing during installation. 
The steel wire used in the manufacture of the  sack gabion is heavily  galvanized soft temper steel. The standard specifications of mesh-wire are shown in Table 2. In order to reinforce the structure, all mesh panel edges are selvedged with a wire having a greater diameter (Tables 3, 4).
Dimensions and sizes of galvanized sack gabions are shown in(Table 1.)

Foundation Preparation
The foundation on which the Sack Gabions are to be placed need not be levelled and graded as Sack Gabions are used for the purposes of providing a firm platform in areas where poor founding conditions exist or in areas where founding occurs in the wet. Appropriate measures shall be taken for the separation of the foundation layer from the rock filled Sack gabion in accordance with the project specifications(geotextile, drain works, etc.). Geotextiles required to be installed behind or underneath the Sack gabion structures shall comply with the requirements of the project specification.

Sack Gabions are assembled by rolling the mesh panel into a cylindrical shape and overlapping the selvedged edges. By pulling and tightening the lateral spiral wire, the edges are secured. Excess spiral wire shall be secured around the selvedge wire by looping and twisting the wire around itself. Once the longitudinal overlap is secured, the one end of the cylinder can be laced closed. This is accomplished by pulling the two ends of the bottom spiral tightly together and securing by again looping and twisting the wire around itself. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the wire coating. The remaining end of the cylinder is left open to allow the sack gabion to be filled with suitable stones.

Installation and Filling
Rocks for sack gabions may be produced by any suitable quarrying method, and by the use of any device that yields the required sizes within the gradation limits chosen. Rocks shall be hard, angular to round, durable and of such quality that they shall not disintegrate on exposure to water or weathering during the life of the structure. Rocks shall range between 100mm and 200mm. The range in sizes may allow for a variation of 5% oversize and/or 5% undersize rock, provided it is not placed on the exposed surface. In all cases, the over size rock shall be not larger than 250mm, and the undersize rock shall not be smaller than 80mm.
Rock shall be placed from the open end of the cylindrical shaped gabion. Once the sack gabion has been filled satisfactory, the ends of the top spiral wire are pulled tight, twisted and looped onto itself. Care shall be taken when placing the stone to avoid damaging the wire coating. Hand manipulation of the rock maybe necessary to minimise voids and achieve a maximum density of the rock in the sack gabions!


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